• Cyber law notes for llb students pdf

    Cyber law notes for llb students pdf

    Financial Accounting Principles for Law Practitioners. The Origins of South African Law. Foundations of South African Law. Introduction to Law. Law of Persons. Skills Course for Law Students. Research Literacy for Law. Social Dimensions of Justice. Administrative Law. General Principles of Civil Procedure. General Principles of Criminal Law.

    Criminal Law: Specific Crimes. Constitutional Law. Fundamental Rights. African Customary Law. Interpretation of Statutes. Entrepreneurial Law. Family Law. Law of Succession. Civil Procedure: Court Proceedings.

    Class Notes on Labour Law – Unit III (3rd Sem / 3 year LL.B)

    Evidence: Admissibility of Evidence. Evidence: the Presentation and Assessment of Evidence. Insolvency Law. Labour Law. Law of Property. Law of Contract. Law of Delict. Enrichment Liability and Estoppel. Legal Transactions in International Law. International Transport Law. Advanced Indigenous Law. Environmental Law. Advanced Constitutional Law and Fundamental Rights.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up.

    Jurisprudence Notes LLB pdf.

    cyber law notes for llb students pdf

    Sunanda Tewari. Legal Positivism 2. Natural Law 3. Feminist Jurisprudence 4. Marxist Jurisprudence 5. Sociological Jurisprudence Meaning and introduction to Jurisprudence The word jurisprudence derives from the Latin term jurisprudentia, which means "the study, knowledge, or science of law.

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    Legal philosophy has many aspects, but four of them are the most common. The first and the most prevalent form of jurisprudence seeks to analyze, explain, classify, and criticize entire bodies of law.

    Law school textbooks and legal encyclopedias represent this type of scholarship. The second type of jurisprudence compares and contrasts law with other fields of knowledge such as literature, economics, religion, and the social sciences.

    The third type of jurisprudence seeks to reveal the historical, moral, and cultural basis of a particular legal concept.

    cyber law notes for llb students pdf

    Formalists believe that a judge identifies the relevant legal principles, applies them to the facts of a case, and logically deduces a rule that will govern the outcome of the dispute. In contrast, proponents of legal realism believe that most cases before courts present hard questions that judges must resolve by balancing the interests of the parties and ultimately drawing an arbitrary line on one side of the dispute. This line, realists maintain, is drawn according to the political, economic, and psychological inclinations of the judge.

    Some legal realists even believe that a judge is able to shape the outcome of the case based on personal biases. Apart from the realist-formalist dichotomy, there is the classic debate over the appropriate sources of law between positivist and natural law schools of thought.

    Positivists argue that there is no connection between law and morality and that the only sources of law are rules that have been expressly enacted by a governmental entity or court of law. Naturalists, or proponents of natural law, insist that the rules enacted by government are not the only sources of law. They argue that moral philosophy; religion, human reason and individual conscience are also integral parts of the law.

    There are no bright lines between different schools of jurisprudence. The legal philosophy of a particular legal scholar may consist of a combination of strains from many schools of legal thought.In technology driven society, internet has huge contribution for the growth of humans. Many investigators explained that cyberspace is a physical space but actually were a computer-generated construction representing abstract data.

    It is a virtual medium. It has no boundaries, no geographical mass, or gravity. Numerous advancements are done due to cyber activities but the major question is that whether it should be regulated or not.

    Cyber Law is the law that controls cyber space. Cyber space is a very broad term and includes computers, networks, software, and data storage devices such as hard disks, USB disks, the Internet, websites, emails and even electronic devices such as cell phones, ATM machines. The increased dependence of individuals and organizations on cyberspace has resulted in many cybercrimes. Cyber crimes are illegal acts where the computer is used either as a tool or a target or both.

    The massive growth in electronic commerce e-commerce and online share trading has led to an unusual erupt in incidents of cybercrime. Although, there is system to protect devices from infected with computer virus to the data and computer networks such as firewalls, antivirus software, and other technological solutions, but in India efforts must be done towards effective use of these technologies to protect the valuable data and to combat cyber-crime.

    Even expert users of IT tools may not be aware of cyber victimization.

    cyber law notes for llb students pdf

    Along with the progression in technology it is similarly important to be aware of cyber-crime and other related issues thereof. The cyber safety depends on the knowledge of the technology and the care taken while using internet and that of the defensive measures adopted by user and servers systems.

    Cyber law portrays the legal issues associated with the use of communications technology, mainly "cyberspace", i. It is a junction of numerous legal fields, including intellectual property, privacy, freedom of expression, and jurisdiction. It is established that cyber law applies to regulations designed for the physical world, to human activity on the Internet. Cyber law basically deals with almost all aspects of transaction and activities concerning Internet, World Wide Web and Cyberspace in India.

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    The law for cyberspace is to control the man and the machine. The fundamental goal of cyber laws is to legalize human behaviour and not technology. Cyber laws are technology intensive laws, advocating the use but not the mishandling of technology.

    Cyber law comprises of all the cases, statutes and legal provisions that affect persons and institutions who control the entry to cyberspace, provide access to cyberspace, create the hardware and software which enable people to access cyberspace or use their own devices to go 'online' and enter cyberspace.

    Law covers the rules of conduct that have been accepted by the government, and which are in force over a certain region, and which must be followed by all people on that region. Breach of these rules could lead to government action such as captivity or fine or an order to pay compensation. There are many grounds why it is difficult for conventional law to manage with cyberspace. The first reason is that Cyberspace is an intangible dimension that is unfeasible to govern and regulate using conventional law.

    Secondly, cyberspace has complete disregard for jurisdictional boundaries. Another reason is that cyberspace handles huge traffic volumes every second.

    Billions of emails are crisscrossing the globe even as we read this, millions of websites are being accessed every minute and billions of dollars are electronically transferred around the world by banks every day. Cyberspace is absolutely open to sharing by all.

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    Cyberspace offers enormous potential for secrecy to its members.Exam notes, exam summaries or study notes — whatever you call them, they are the savior of law students. Some people might disagree, but I think exam scripts are the best way to prepare for, and answer, exam questions. Oh, and remember that you should be answering exam questions using the IRAC method. An explanation on IRAC with examples can be found here.

    A little bit of nervousness is a good thing — it keeps us alert and makes sure that we put in a little bit extra effort.

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    One easy way to feel confident with your exam summary, and improve it at the same time, is by using the massive amount of free resources available online. This means that even notes that are a few years old can be very useful. Simply Google for a more specific set of notes. The only disadvantage of this is that it can take a little longer to find the notes you are after. You get the idea!

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    It can also be extremely helpful to search for a specific filetype. Obviously, this will only return search results for powerpoint slides the most common file type for lecture notesword documents the most common file type for exam notes and pdf files, respectively.

    I found the best way to do this is to prepare an outline and rough first draft of your script using your own notes and lecture notes. Take a small amount of time to fill in any missing pieces by reading the textbook and cases. Once this is done, you can start using online materials.

    And similarly, go back to your lecture notes again — have you missed anything? Being able to consolidate your learning like this is a really important step in the learning process.

    If you do take a look online, you will notice that there are plenty of websites offering law exam notes for a fee. Many of them know of, and willing exploit, the pressure that law students are under to score highly on every single exam.

    Hopefully this has been helpful and provides you with another tool to put in your law school arsenal.

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    Thanks so much for being so comprehensive and for providing the tips that you do.Cyber law is fundamentally the branch of law that deals with the legal issues which are related to the use of information technology.

    The governing mechanisms and legal structures that oversee the growth of electric commerce in India fall within the domain of cyber law. Cyber law essentially encompasses laws relating to electronic and digital signatures, cyber crimes, intellectual property, data protection and privacy. Internet was initially developed as a research and information sharing tool and was in an unregulated manner.

    As time passed by it became more transactional with e-business, e-commerce, e-governance and e-procurement etc. All legal issues related to internet crime are dealt with through cyber laws.

    As the number of internet users is on the rise, the need for cyber laws and their application has also gathered great momentum. Your valuable feedback in the form of comments or any desired inputs are encouraged and always welcome. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Like this: Like Loading Related Posts. Cyber Activism: An Infoxication. Digital Signature and Electronic Signature. Child Pornography — A Menace.

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    Plagiarism in the Cyberspace Copyright and Cyber Law. Do you have any questions or review for us? Comment Here Cancel reply.Basis of Tort Law Doing business today involves risks, both legal and financial. A tort is a civil injury designed to provide compensation for injury to a legally protected, tangible or intangible, interest.

    There are intentional and unintentional negligence torts. Intend means: Tortfeasor intended the consequences of her act; or She knew with substantial certainty that certain consequences would result. Merchants may reasonably detain customers if there is probable cause.

    Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress An intentional act that is: Extreme and outrageous, that Results in severe emotional distress in another. Most courts require some physical symptom or illness. Defamation Right to free speech is constrained by duty we owe each other to refrain from making false statements. Orally breaching this duty is slander ; breaching it in print or media is libel.

    Publication requires communication to a 3 rd party. Damages for Libel General Damages are presumed ; Plaintiff does not have to show actual injury. General damages include compensation for disgrace, dishonor, humiliation, injury to reputation and emotional distress.

    Exceptions for Slander Per Se. No proof of damages is necessary:. Defenses to Defamation Truth is generally an absolute defense. Privileged or Immune Speech. Qualified : Employee Evaluations. Defamation-Public Figures Public figures exercise substantial governmental power or are otherwise in the public limelight.

    Invasion of Privacy Every person has a fundamental right to solitude freedom from public scrutiny. Public Disclosure of Private Facts. Fraudulent Misrepresentation Fraud is intentional deceit.

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    Fact vs. Wrongful Interference Tort that interferes with a contractual relationship. Occurs when:. Case 5. Liu Wrongful Interference With a Business Relationship occurs when: Established business relationship; Tortfeasor, using predatory methods, causes relationship to end; and Plaintiff suffers damages.

    Bona fide competitive behavior is a defense to this tort.Pages Law Notes Home. Law Notes. Chapter 01 Introduction to Lawanda Legal Reasoning Schools of Jurisprudential Thought Legal Realism Sources of American Law The Common Law Tradition Legal and Equitable Remedies Stare Decisis Stare Decisis and Precedent Stare Decisis and Legal Reasoning Types of Legal Reasoning The Common Law Jurisdiction Jurisdiction over Persons Jurisdiction over Property Subject Matter Jurisdiction Original and Appellate Jurisdiction Federal Court Jurisdiction Trial Courts Appellate Courts Supreme Courts Alternative Dispute Resolution Negotiation Assisted Negotiation Mediation Arbitration Providers of ADR Services Online Dispute Resolution Court Procedures Procedural Rules Consulting an Attorney Pre-Trial Procedures The Trial Verdict Post Trial Motions The Appeal


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